6.1. H2ICE

Hydrogen fueled internal combustion engines operate with near zero emissions and have the ability to operate efficiently even at low loads. Hydrogen in this case does not need to be as pure as in the alternative fuel cell.

BMW V12 Hydrogen internal combustion engine (Source: Automotoportal)

6.2. Diesel-Hydrogen dual fuel engine

Hydrogen burns 10 times as fast as diesel, so when mixed with air prior to entering the combustion chamber, and then with diesel, it will accelerate the rate at which the diesel burns. In addition, the combustion with low oxygen concentration allows NOx emissions to be reduced considerably.

6.3. H2FC

Hydrogen fuel cells generate electricity by electrochemically combining hydrogen and oxygen to form water. A study of the fuel cells used in shipping by the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) ranked three types as the most promising for marine use: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), high-temperature PEMFC and solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The PEMFC has a mature technology that leads to a relatively low cost. It requires pure hydrogen and its main safety aspects are for the storage of hydrogen on board ships. The high-temperature PEMFC has less mature technology, but it increases the resistance to impurities and simplifies the water management. The SOFC is highly efficient, flexible towards different fuels, and the reforming of hydrocarbons to hydrogen takes place internally in the cell.

Fuel cell of the Toyota Mirai (Source: MoteurNature)

6.4. Hydrogen gas turbine

Modified conventional gas turbines that resist high temperatures are being developed and will allow the use of H2-rich gases. These gas turbines will offer fuel flexibility and low emissions.

Gas Turbine (GE, Power Generation)

6.5. Interesting project

A wind and hydrogen system on the island of Utsira I, Norway, operated from 2004 to 2008, and consisted of a wind turbine (600 kW), a water electrolyzer (10 Nm3/h), a hydrogen gas storage (2400 Nm3, 200 bar), a PEMFC (10 kW), and H2ICE (55 kW). This system was able to give 2–3 days of full energy autonomy for 10 households on the island (Ulleberg, Ø. et al).

Wind and hydrogen system to generate energy at Utsira, Norway. (Ulleberg, 2005)

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Deurmat

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